Dharamshila Cancer Foundation And Research Centre

Cancer Screening

When we are healthy and have no symptoms, cancer screening is the best option to detect cancer at an early stage.

As per Globocan 2012 data most common cancers which can be detected at early stages in India are Head & Neck (0.77 lakhs new cases detected per Annum) Cancer of the Breast Cancer (1.44 lakh cases detected per annum), Cancer of Cervix (1.23 new cases detected per annum) and Prostate Cancer (1.60 lakhs cases detected per annum)

Cancer Screening for Women

Breast Cancer

Clinical Breast Examination

A Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) is a physical examination done by a doctor. It's often done during your regular medical check-up.


Mammography is the process of using low-energy X-rays to examine the breast for diagnosis and screening. The goal of mammography is early detection of breast cancer.

Screening Recommendations for Mammography
Group Age Frequency
Normal Population 50-59 Years Once in 2 Years
Family History of Breast cancer 40-50 Years Every Year
High risk group 30 years and above Every Year
Any lump in the breast 30 years and above
Ultrasound of the Breast

Women with dense breast require ultrasound of the breast.

Who is at High Risk of getting Breast Cancer?
  • Family history of Breast Cancer in Mother, Sister, maternal grandmother & maternal aunt.
  • Known cases of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation
  • First degree relatives with BRCA 1 or 2.
  • Radiation therapy to the chest between the ages of 10 and 30 years

Cervical Cancer

It is the easiest cancer to be detected at a precancerous stage 0 or stage I and II when the chances of curing it are highest.

Screening tests includes:-

Pap Smear

A Pap smear is a microscopic examination of cells taken from the mouth of the uterus. A Pap smear test can detect Cervical Cancer. Early treatment of precancerous changes detected on the Pap smear can stop cervical cancer before it fully develops. A woman may have cervical cancer and not know it, because she may not have any symptoms.

HPV Testing

This test detects the presence of HPV, the virus that causes cervical cancer, in your system.

Colposcopy(if indicated)

Colposcopy is a procedure to examine cervix, vagina and vulva for signs of disease. Colposchopy is done if your Pap Smear test result is abnormal.

Screening Guidelines for Cervical Cancer
Age Group Recommended Screening Method Comments
Age < 21 yrs No Screening irrespective of onset of sexual activity
Age 21-29 yrs Pap smear alone every 3 yrs
No role of HPV testing No role of yearly testing
Age 30-65 yrs Pap smear and HPV every 5 years (preferred)
Pap smear alone every 3 years (acceptable)
Age < 65 yrs No screening following adequate negative prior screening women with history of CIN2 or higher should continue screening for 20 years
After Hysterectomy No screening No history of CIN2 or more for past 20 years or cervical cancer ever
Ovarian Cancer

Routine screening for ovarian cancer is not recommended. It is only for High Risk group.

Screening Guidelines for Ovarian Cancer
Population Recommended Screening Method Frequency
High Risk Transvaginal Ultrasonogram & Serum Ca-125 blood test Six monthly

Cancer Screening for Men

Head & Neck Cancer

Oral Examination

Oral cancer screening is performed by a doctor to look for signs of cancer or precancerous lesions in mouth. Oral cancer can develop in any part of the oral cavity or oropharynx. Most Oral cancers begin in the tongue and in the floor of the mouth. The aim of oral cancer screening is to identify mouth cancer early, when there is a greater chance for a cure.

Prostate Cancer


Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) is a simple test to check the prostate. Because the prostate is an internal organ. Prostate lies in front of the rectum; to start the DRE, the doctor gently inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into your rectum. The doctor will then determine the size of the prostate and feel for bumps, soft or hard spots, or other abnormalities. He will also examine the wall of the lower colon/rectum. It is performed in the screening of prostate cancer.

Lung Cancer

Chest X-ray

Chest X-ray is recommended for those who have a high risk of developing Lung Cancer but no sign or symptoms of the disease. A chest X-ray makes images of the heart, lung, airways, blood vessels and the bones of the spine and chest.

Stomach Cancer

Ultrasound (if required)

An ultrasound scan is a medical test that uses high-frequency sound waves to capture live images from the inside of your body. It's also known as Sonography. The goal of Ultrasound is the early detection of Stomach cancer.

Screening for Other Cancers

Colorectal Cancer Screening-Colon cancer and rectal cancer screening helps to find cancer at an early stage

Screening Recommendations for Colorectal Cancer
Age Group Recommended Screening Method Frequency
Age < 50 yrs Colonoscopy Every 10 years
Virtual Colonoscopy Every 05 years
Fecal Occult Blood Test Every year
Who is at High Risk of getting Colorectal Cancer

Adults (< 50 years) are at high risk and more likely to get Colorectal Cancer. If any person is in high risk group it does not mean that he will defiantly get Cancer. But, you must start screening for Colorectal Cancer at an early age. If your body is showing any symptoms, your doctor will recognized it at early stage and the chances of getting treated are higher.

High Risk Groups
  • Personal history of precancerous colon polyps (adenomas).
  • Family history of colorectal cancer or precancerous polyps (adenomas). In other words, a family member had or has colorectal cancer or precancerous polyps.
  • Personal history of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis or suspected Familial Adenomatous Polyposis without yet having undergone genetic testing
  • Personal history of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer or family history of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (chronic ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease)

Cancer Screening Clinic

We have in- house Cancer Screening Clinic (Monday to Saturday 9 am to 5 pm). We also conduct cancer screening camps on demand.

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